Category Archives: Uncategorized

Dubious Independent Candidates: Kenya in August 8th 2017

Politics can be a game of silent killers. In Kenya, there is a new breed of politicians coming to the fore due to the nature of the new Katiba. They are called the independent candidates. I guess you are familiar with the rule that if one finds that the philosophies of a given party are not palatable to their ideologies, then they can opt out joining the parties and run for elective posts as independent candidates.

It is now incumbent upon my mind that independent candidates are a mysterious bunch of political hang-coats (but not all of them). The term independent candidate in my mind conjures an image of a person who is not affiliated to any political party in terms of membership, association, or ideology. That is just a rough shod definition, but suffice is to say, independent candidates should not be backed by any political party machinery neither should they align themselves to any in whatever manner.

The description above is for the pure independent candidates who considered running for elective posts long before the 90 day window period of registering as one lapsed. These are the men and women who looked at the elections, let me say six months before the elections, and decided that the vile ideologies of NASA and Jubilee parties were not in tandem with their principles and beliefs in exercising their political freedom.

This are the gentlemen and ladies who subdued the very desire to be affiliated to any political fraternity masquerading as political parties out to sale their agendas to the populace in return for a promise of a vote.

And that is where the story ends with the original independent candidates.

The rest emerged after the political party primaries were concluded. They were the victims of the electorate irked to do away with their manifestos and bludgeoning promises of a harvest of goody goodies in case they get elected or for incumbents, what they have so far failed miserably to deliver. Among this group are those by all means so fair ethically and morally could not carry the day for them.

After the party primaries, having been so gracefully rejected, they conspired with the loopholes of the law and saw another option that seemed lucrative for them. The lure of independent candidacy… Within this group, they proclaim to the mountains and the voters that they were unfairly rigged out but will support the either Uhuru Mugai Kenyatta or Raila Amollo Odinga.

Seriously, do you call this bunch of political nomads independent candidates? Stock within this warehouse includes the names of William Kabogo and Achillo Ayacko. These were Jubilee and NASA failures in their party primaries en mass, the rejected lot whose manifestos were invalidated at the party primaries. There is no way this two can certify the general rule and loose defining terms of independent candidates.

They are the hang-coats who are assured that by supporting the political supremos who command the fortunes of votes in their political storms, they stand a chance opf redemption at the ballot casting scheduled for August 8th of this year. How then will someone convince me that they are non-partisan politicians who are out to redeem themselves as independent candidates with their obvious non-partisan politics?

The third bunches of independent candidates are the spoilers. They are operating on someone else budget and hence stand to lose nothing. If anything they have everything to gain. Their masters may have sensed a rough time in the coming turbulent political storms brewing towards the coastline of August. Knowing too well that sheltered enclaves are so few, they secure the services of independent candidates to they can claim some crumbs or chunks of bread from their opponent’s strongholds.

I may not have the facts but they are the ones who may have been bought to stand as presidential candidates from Western Kenya to scuttle the Luhya votes in favor of Jubilee, another one is from Embu who is running as a presidential candidate, may be at the behest of NASA to the detriment of Jubilee.

The last bunches of independent candidates are the idiots. This single group of the independent candidates is aware they have no fortunes at all in their candidacy. I consider Phillip Murgor as one of them had he not shelved his plans to run as a presidential candidate. They know too well lady fortune will not smile at them, they have no political mechanization and they are greenhorns in the dirty political games in which they are foraying.

Promise Me Hell and Deliver Me to Heaven NASA.

My supposition is that there are a lot of other Kenyans who have a mind like mine to matters politics in Kenya. When in 2012 team Uhuruto promised a bountiful of heavenly goodies to the Kenya electorate to the chagrin of the truth. The lies were taken at face value but had no meaning at all in the face of reality.

Fast track to the current moment. This team Jubilee has been in office for four good years, they have delivered something, one cannot say nothing, for the mere fact the country in intact is something. But what else?

I want NASA to promise me hell, that it will not be business of development anymore, that is a language I don’t fancy because it is meaningless when corruption is systemic and endemic in our collective thinking and national culture. I want a promise where I will be denied employment on account of meritocracy and not nepotism. I want a promise that will see me toil to earn a position because I deserve and not because I have a tall brother in the system. That is the promise I want from NASA.

I desire to be comforted that my child’s future is secured by the goodwill of today and not the greed of the jungle masters. This country must advance on the basis of prudent borrowing and not to please the masses with mega white elephant projects but construction of a village dam that actually conserves water. In the daily struggles of my life, I desire “not to own the future but to borrow the present” from my future grandchildren. I voice the concern that we must conserve our resources for posterity and not simply because we yearn for today’s vote.

Dear fellow Kenyans, we must have a dream to end corruption and not to entrench it further by saying graft is a norm that can never be eradicated. With that, we must stop “embezzlement of public resources for our own private embellishment” which is the promise I yearn from NASA. I don’t want a promise of devolving resources under the banner of devolution but devolve power to the devolved units and help them resolve corruption issues with speed and ease. Do not promise me to arrest the corrupt but keep quite and let me see the big lions of corruption land in jail together with the small cats that work for them. That is the promise I want NASA

I want to see a leadership of respect to authority of government systems and not those who trample on it. I want to see a government where decisions made by you will be not be challenged for their constitutionality every now and then as you seek to bend the supremacy and the spirit of the constitution to suit your needs. I want to believe that once in power the rule of law shall be upheld and aspect of constitutionalism propagated. That is the promise I want.

Do not promise salary rises every labor day, no, in fact promise no salary increment but deliver to me a lowered cost of living, that will be a better promise. Promise me that I will get lower wages as you seek to attract more investors so that more can get job opportunities and not a million jobs every year when less than 3 million Kenyans remain employed in all the last four years. Please do not promise me heaven, if you do that, I will rather vote Jubilee because they have the heaven they promised but no astronauts to collect the goody goodies. Promise me hell and a better future, that is the promise I want.

NASA if you promise me heaven, then let me vote Jubilee. Promise the reality of tough times but a secured future in the long term. Copy Winston Churchill, former British PM during the 2nd World War, he promised the British people “Blood, Sweat and Toil” as the price of their liberation from German blitzkrieg, and the promise was delivered with the end of 2nd WW.That is the promise I want, a promise tough measures and no immediate gains but securing a better future. That is a promise I want, and an honest word from you, NASA, that you will change the fortunes of Kenya for the better

The open secret: Jomo Kenyatta and birth of ethnic activism in support of systemic corruption in Kenya

A nation that was brought forth as a Republic in 1964 stands in the pits of high debts both internally and internationally. That country is now in the perils, where the masses have been duped that grand development is in the making only for scandals to encumber the so called grand projects. Yet , the silent hand of tribalism spews hatred unrelentingly

My disputation is aimed at the common man. Overtime I witness the supporters of Uhuru and Ruto squabble in giving the loudest praises for the ‘impeccable’ development records the two rookies have bestowed to Kenya. I fail to comprehend how a misfiring promise of one million jobs per year yielding to exportation of jobs can attract grand admiration. I’m perturbed by the liethat foreign direct investment in Kenya is increasing when in reality multinational corporations are relocating from Nairobi
When will Kenyans overcome their tribal egos and look beyond ethnic boundaries in securing good governance and leadership reflecting the spirit of the Constitution? When challenged to face the reality about our choices, we are the experts of equivocating, both the supporters of the two prodigal leaders in power and that swam that seeks redemption in the Opposition.

At this juncture I want to commend two people.

First I give credit to David Ndii for his persuasion that his fellow tribesman Uhuru is leading Kenya’s economy in the wrong direction and opines the current outfit of NASA can turn things around. Same to S.K Macharia for standing his ground that Uhuru did not win the last elections even though they are both great grandsons of Mumbi.

On equal measure I credit Raphael Tuju for breaking ranks with his tribal kingpin and charting his political destiny. But for him, while he supports Jubilee, I do not know if it’s out of conviction in the principles of ‘honest’ ideology guiding Jubilee, or if it is to partake in kula nyama asimeze mate. I have exponential distrust of that kula nyama ideology to the level that I cast aspersions on it.

Now let me move to the hoards of political flower-bee-followers at the rural level. These are people who have decided to throw away the magnificent power of reasoning and seeing things different from their established tribal perspectives. I get appalled when in Luo Nyanza villagers treat Agwambo as a demigod and say he can’t be wrong. Well, I know it’s because of his continued exposes of mega corruption scandals after another, and on the threat of being sued, he stands firm and is vindicated when the scandals are substantially proved.

Kalenjin land I see some blind following of scions of Kanu on two fronts. One is the last son of Toroitich and the other his political progeny who has gone awry, Samoei. This conglomerating together because of their tribal identity other than merit to national cause is being challenged by a rebel in the name of Isaac Rutto. He is my other hero, challenging and questioning in seeking the truth over and above tribal allegiances.

And so have the Luhyas taken the cue. For a long time the Luhyas have been the swing block. Voting based on whom they deem right. But on considerations ethno-centred nepotism has made them elect Mudavadi as their spokesman, and forced the marriage of Wetangula and Mudavadi to happen. Whoever quits NASA the wrath of the community is theirs to own. This concept of tribalism and our turn to eat, or “When I have a cow the first people to milk it are my people” and now epitomized by “Tunakula nyama hao wanameza mate” is so repulsive, counterproductive and detrimental to country’s socio-economic development. Where is the genesis of all this crap that is fragmenting our country and propagating corruption while the common man cheers on and defends even the vile corrupt of the “corruptiest” in the country because of “my tribe” factor?

I look at the backyard of Uhuru’s den of supporters. Some, not all, wallow in the ideology that the leadership of the country is theirs by right because of the infamous Uthamaki Oath administered to their grandfathers and fathers to support the late Jomo Kenyatta, pioneer and father of ethnicity in Kenya. As new revelations come to the fore, I dare Kenyans to challenge me, to give me evidence of Jomo Kenyatta’s conviction to building a country of prosperity and cohesiveness?

Over time my admiration of Jomo Kenyatta has crystallized to loathing because of the political decisions he made as the first president of Kenya. I disqualify him from the prestige of Founding Father. The new generation of young Kikuyus no longer live by the fear of the late Odinga, nor do they care about the current Odinga. Just like all the new generations of Kenyans, they care about whattsapp and facebook, instagram and twitter than to be bothered by the current political mechanizations.

This is the new tribe again of the common Mwananchi that must be gently nudged to open their eyes and take stock of the political matters with serious considerations because political affairs rarely are a happenstance. The prevailing political environment’s outcome can have long lasting effects on their future like the effects of Uthamaki Oath.

I wish this political nonsense of pillaring our political decisions on the misfortune of tribalism ceases forever. Julius Nyerere set Tanzanians on the path of cohesiveness in Ujamaa. The economic aspect failed, but the socio-political and cultural unity succeeded. Tanzanians do not consider tribe in their political matters. Nelson Mandela, anti-apartheid icon, came out of prison and gave an olive branch to his persecutors, otherwise, may be Zimbabwe would have remained a shadow in how racial intolerance veiled in economic retribution can damage a country. My conclusion, Jomo Kenyatta was the dividing-founding Father of Kenya; his son is a mere inadvertent beneficiary of Uthamaki Oaths.

Nexus of Mediocrity in Leadership and the Governance in Kenya- The Inept Mr. President

Approximately 45 months ago, as a nation, we brought in a new class of tumbocrats to the echelons of power in Kenya. They held the promise of kusema na kutender and flagged their development agenda on a high flying start.

Meritocracy was a language the two boys had promised tooth over nail to deliver, and to shun ethnic-inclined policies and tribal jingoism, in addition to executing nepotisms from the mantra of Kenyan policies and national ideologies. 45 months down the lane, they remain the very pinnacles of the Jubilee establishment that lends no goodwill to the sober political inclusivistic nationalism that was enshrined in the New Constitution.

The notion of patriotic Kenyans has been mapped into two distinct groups that show that tribal hegemony still holds sway in Kenyan politics. For clarity and disambiguation my insinuation of the two boys and their parliamentary choir master means Uhuru Muigai Kenyatta, William Samoei Ruto and one funny Aden Duale. This three have become the masters of chronic inaction by the executive arm of the government and its tyranny of numbers in Parliament to propagate and sustain a meaningful war on corruption, tribalism, ujingaism, upumbavucrasy and a host of other vices that undermine the true spirit of the Kenyan Constitution.

It is with regret that they have managed to entrench voter apathy to people who see the exercise of democratic elections as a futile attempt towards bringing meaningful change. The divergence of voter apathy in areas pro-opposition zones from voting was a good attempt at locking their fervent supporters to the ballot and disenfranchising their fanatical opponents from the very same destiny. The Two Boys and One Parrot had a strange belief that the entrapment of the ICC was their silver bullet to State House again.

They had the chance to go ballistic with nationalistic agenda that could have endeared them to the masses regardless of their political divide after 2013 election debacle, also made a farce by the Supreme Court arbitration of the election dispute. The ICC holds no sway anymore, and the agenda of the next election should be steered away from such topical maladies in our political thoughts as citizens of this country. Instead the boys and the parrot should recline themselves to policy evaluations and align themselves to political changes that may or may not favour them.

These boys and their parrot must rally to convince Kenyans that they are no longer swimming with the ghost of ICC after-tastes but completely focused to a new ideological dispensation that is all inclusive to all Kenyans. They must demonstrate that it is never too late to design a new approach in a storm, must prove that their versatility is not about preservation of the old status quo, because agreeing the status quo is an express approval of a constant slide into the abyss of socio-economic doom and economic turmoil as a country.

What Kenyans need now is not a shouting match of who knows how to head bash his political opponents, or the constant shouting of how their political nemesis Tinga is responsible for all corrupt acts in Kenya when they are in the very seat of power unto which they can direct relevant organs to get the truth. Blaming Raila for your failures Mr. President, is an implied approval that Raila is in control of what you have failed to do with all the powers conferred to you by the Constitution.

At this juncture the question that begs an answer is why again vie for another term when being the incumbent you already threw in the towel against the war on corruption? “Mnataka nifanye nini?” was the most nonsensical question ever posed by Kenyan’s incumbent president. On the other side Kenyans should stop fooling themselves that the president is not bad, that it is the power barons who surround him. Hell forbid and heaven forgive them if they do not know what they are doing. Birds of the same feathers flock together, the president’s pools of advisors, and his kitchen cabinet, are his focal points of judgement and important decision-making ventures he has to undertake. If he listens to them without reference to any other checks and balances, then he must shoulder the blame.

In a multi-party democracy the opposition will always plan how to oust the incumbent regime using the power of the voter, and that is by itself the promise of accountability. For any democracy to be effective, issues of loyalty and honesty to a political cause are paramount, but not based on tribal tags and whimsical buccaneering. Kenyans as voting-empowered citizens should be able to look beyond their tribal orientation and project free and authoritative independent minds in the political decisions they make.

The slogan “We must have one of our own to eat the national cake” is an utterly horrendous act intent to ‘stupidify’ unification of 42 tribes into a single national fabric called Kenya. So Mr. President, clean up your acts and start treating your opponents with decorum and dignity. More Kenyans are disdained by the unrelenting verbal tirades being traded by both sides of the political divide.

8 months in the political arena is too long a period. The opposition should not celebrate even an iota with the coveted NASA; Africans have a history that favours incumbents from inches to light-years in resources, sleazy treachery, time and distance. Yaya Jahmme of Gambia has a story tell, Kibaki played part in solidifying that element in African history, and Museveni propagates it with political brutality, not forgetting Mugabe and Kigame. So Mr President, have you lost the war on corruption, tribalism and divisive political mechanization to use this underhand tactics to avoid being a first-term president?

Excerpt from my novel “Blood After Sunrise”

Battered and torn, abused and shaken the women finally made it to the train, the only refuge in the wilderness of molestation that had engulfed the slum in the aftermath of the election results and the violence. They boarded the train to safety.

The train started moving.

Shami realized she was overstaying in the wagon and made for the door. She saw Venn running towards the bushes, and Collo, the man who had sexually assaulted her several times, was running after Venn. He caught up with her as she got to the bushes along the railway.

Venn was pleading for mercy. She was shaking her head in denial to his line of interrogation. Venn was courageous. She was refusing to give details of their whereabouts in the face of her impending death. As the train started to descend the other side of the hill she could make out the distinct shape of the dreaded Enemy Sweeper as he raised a machete high. She covered her eyes, but the image of her friend raising her hands into the air in anticipation of the lethal blow will forever be etched in her memory. She heard the last scream of her friend pierce the quiet night.

She withdrew back into the wagon.

“It seems we will have a long ride to nowhere. In one night I have lost two of my best friends.” She was trying in vain to hold back her tears, but the tremors and the shaking hands betrayed her efforts of concealing her agony. “Do you have a place along the towns the train will pass where we can find someone to accommodate us?”

“I don’t know anyone.”

“Don’t let what happened to you make you refuse to walk on in life.” Shami tried consoling her amid her sobs. “I have been through it too.”

Jenny was sobbing and she asked innocently, “Were you a virgin today in the morning?”

Shami looked aside. She tried speaking, and at first she didn’t know how to answer the question. “No, I lost it years ago to my teenage sweetheart. He got me pregnant, denied responsibility, and disappeared from the face of the earth.”

Jenny was deathly quiet for some time, and then she opened her mouth, almost in a whisper that was creeping in from the confines of the dungeons where she was reliving her torment, her loss, where her esteem had been shattered to pieces. Her worth as a woman had been cruelly robbed, and now what remained was a blemish in her life. For her it was a contamination that was not of her own making. She spoke in a voice that was not hers, a voice that had been scorched by cruelty to near-collapse in a desperate bid to pass its message. “The men who killed my father did this to me. I have tasted the cruelty of men, and I have tasted the bitterness of losing my chastity in this way. You had the choice to lose it the way you did, I will never ever have that choice…”

Two heartbroken souls, lost in the darkness of the moving wagon were embraced in pain and crushed from so much of life’s fortune that had been robbed from them in a span of hours in a single day. From the loss of friends to a permanent blotching of chastity, the emotional wounds would take a long time to heal.

The two women had no words to express their poignant agony aptly. The darkness was the symbol of the black blanket of grieving that life had bestowed to them on that night. Simply holding on to each other and hearing their own depressing sobs was a potent way of sharing their mournful tales, yet in silence and only by themselves, in the safety of the moving wagon.

The physical pain that the women felt was nothing compared to the inner suffering. The hurt in their souls, the train of thoughts in their minds, and the damage done to their bodies was a manifestation of the cruel side of life. They had been punished because of their tribe. For Shami it also reminded her of the agony of the wasted life of Shakia.

The train rumbled on, and its soft rocking and gentle rumbling soon lulled Jenny to sleep. Shami walked to the door and slid it closed. She then opened one of the wagon windows. Outside the full moon was shining bright occasionally when the cloud cover gave way. Far down to the left the Great Valley could be seen.



Mohamed Said Barre ascended to the Presidency of Somalia in 1969 through a coup nine years after Somalia gained Independence from her colonial powers [1]. The current state of insecurity was occasioned by his inability to develop a national philosophy that was to anchor the unity of a nation over and above clanism, nepotism, corruption, and despotic dictatorship. These issues led to the formation of the Islamic Union in 1983 [2], which is considered the progeny of Islamic fundamentalism in Somalia. In the 1990s Farah Aideed and other clan warlords managed to oust him and force him into exile. Unfortunately for Aideed, clanism was too entrenched that neither he nor other warlords could unite the Somali people under one national banner after the demise of Barre’s presidency.

Brief History of Al-Shabaab

Al-Shabaab is an off-shoot of two groups whose ideologies have either undergone a metamorphosis or have been adapted from international Jihadist organizations. From the onset at around 1983 the formation of the Islamic Union was composed of young men who had been studying or working in the Middle East. The Islamic Union at this point of time was supported by funding from Saudi-based NGOs that influenced the group’s perception that political Islam was the tool that could be used to dislodge the country from corrupt governance. The group had two main objectives, to remove Said Barre from power and unify Somalis by enjoining Ethiopia’s Ogaden region and Kenya’s North Eastern Province with Somalia[3]. This is the basis of the Shifta sentiments in North Eastern Kenya during the 1980s-90s.

The subject of political Islam was not highly regarded as good by a majority of Somalis who remained suspicious of it and resorted to clans as a source of protection. This explains why clanism in Somali is deeply entrenched. However, the Islamic Union consolidated the town of Luuq and administered strict Sharia their making the region have higher security standards than other areas in Somali. The proximity of Luuq to Ethiopia and Kenya, considering the IU vision of annexing NEP in Kenya and Ogaden region in Ethiopia only fuelled Ethiopia’s anxiety of the IU. This led to Ethiopia’s invasion and terminated IU from the town but did not culminate to a total defeat of the IU, which underwent a transformation and re-emerged as the Islamic Court Union that sought to apply strict Sharia in the restoration of Somalia.

By 2006, the ideology of the group had changed as they sought to align ICU with global Jihadism and affiliate itself with Al-Qaeda [4]. It is at this point that Somalia was opened to a wave of foreign jihadists from all over the world, some of them battle hardened from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Chechnya, Iraq and other Middle East countries joined ICU to bolster its fighting capacity. They improved their guerrilla warfare and fighting techniques [5]. ICU attempted to overrun Baidoa the then stronghold of the Federal Transition Government in late 2006. Ethiopia responded with immense military force supported by the US army.  The Ethiopian response restored Baidoa to the Federal Transition Government, but in the aftermath an insurgency against the FTG and the Ethiopian invasion led to the rise of Mujahedeen Youth Movement from the ashes of the ICU.

The Long-Term Vision of the Al-Shabaab

The Al-Shabaab has equated the AMISON mission as a Christian attack on the Muslims of Somalia. This provides two reasons for justifying their Jihadist wars and terrorist acts against Kenya. First, the Al-Shabaab are using the propaganda that Kenya is headed by a Christian president and the KDF incursion into Somalia and later inclusion into AMISOM as an attempt by Christians to subdue Somalis and water down the quality of Islamic way of life which they regard as pure and prescribed by God. Secondly, as a progeny of the Islamic Union which sought to build a Greater Somali through the unification of the Ogaden region in Ethiopia and Kenya’s North Eastern Province, they validate their nationalism by arguing that the Ethiopian and Kenyan invasion of Somali needs to be repulsed, and later these two regions forcibly annexed to Somalia.

By mixing the two elements, the Al-Shabaab seeks to justify the terrorist acts they perpetuate against Kenya as Jihad. It should be noted that top leadership in Al-Shabaab has sought allegiance and support from Al-Qaeda and have got an endorsement from the late Osama bin Laden himself.  Al-Shabaab seeks to expand the theme of Greater Somalia by subjecting itself to the global Jihadist goal of establishing an Islamic Khilaafah (Caliphate) in all parts of the world. It is here that the Ethiopian and Kenyan efforts to bolster the AMISOM must not come to a cessation.

Sheikh Ali Muhammad Hussein one of the Al-Shabaab leaders has been quoted as having stated the continuation of jihad beyond Somalia is a religious obligation in defence of Islam. In 2009 he advocated the idea that despite the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops from Mogadishu, the mujahideen had a sacred duty to pursue the enemy to where he still remains. He justifies this by stating that that will be an act in compliance with the command of God and more traps will be laid for the enemy. Suffice is to say, he did not foresee the end of Jihad with the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops because insofar as Islam was concerned, Jihad will continue until doomsday [6].

The top Al-Shabaab leadership has openly subscribed to pursue global Jihadist agenda through direct overtures to Al-Qaeda. Before his demise Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan formally reached to the top echelons of AL-Qaeda to which Al-Qaeda pledged to support Al-Shabaab. One of Al-Qaeda’s top leaders in 2009 Ayman al-Zawahiri appealed to all Muslims in the Muslim world to rise up to aid their Muslim brothers in Somalia

Reasons Why KDF cannot be withdrawn from Somalia

I get appalled by Raila Amolo Odinga when he claims that security in Kenya will improve with the withdrawal of KDF from Somalia. If this is part of his political mechanization of surviving with the nine lives of a cat, then so be it. However, his persuasion that by withdrawing from Somali we shall not lose our face as a nation is logical stupidity. One, as nation, insecurity is the shame that we have on our collective face as a nation. With the brief I have given earlier, it remains to be seen that withdrawal from Somali will open a new frontier for the Al-Shabaab militia who have made manifest their intention to ‘liberate’ Somali from ‘foreign invasion’ led by Kenya and initially orchestrated by the Ethiopians.

So, while Raila is busy asking for a pullout of KDF from Somali, he must be reminded that Al-Shabaab recognized Osama bin Laden as their spiritual leader. Bin Laden never approved the Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed becoming the president of the TFG of Somalia, because he (Sharif) “agreed to partner infidel positive law with Islamic Shari’a to set up a government of national Unity” and in that process apostatized from Islam. This is the doctrine of the Al-Shabaab, if AMISOM withdraws from Somali, this perception will definitely make it impossible to have regional stability in Eastern Africa.

This is because the Al-Shabaab leadership does not in any way seem to be able to reconcile their doctrines of non-cooperation with non Muslim leaders and furthermore, those whom they deem violating that principle. It doesn’t matter that their target is the USA, whom they perceive as the oppressors of Islam. Since they have no way of hitting the USA terribly with terrorist attacks to their desired ultimate satisfaction that will pacify their anger, they have turned the chapter by misplaced aggression, attacking Christians as a replacement.

I therefore seek again to fault Raila, at no point in history has the American nation engaged a faceless enemy within their own borders and who have infested a neighbouring country, say, Canada. Ethiopia and Kenya share common international boundaries with the lawless Somali. USA does not. In the political power struggles within Somali political supremacy has left the country fragmented and exposed to easy infiltrations by international Jihadists who have used Somali as a safe haven for their operation. Thus, to say that withdrawal will save us the shame of defeat is to cover the defecation with icing sugar. Withdrawal is not only futile, but a motivation for the radicalized Al-Shabaab to perpetuate more terror on Kenya until doomsday, based on Osama’s instructions to the Al-Qaeda affiliated Jihadists.

Raila justifies the American withdrawal from Somali two decades ago and tries to use the same logic for Kenya to withdraw, he intentionally overlooks the nature of the engagements for the two countries. The American attempted to restore order in Somalia, when they failed; they had nothing to lose by withdrawing. Kenya has everything to lose. Security. Raila cited Vietnam, but again that was a fallacy in my view. In Afghanistan and Iraq the withdrawal of the US army did not provide much impetus at re-unifying these failed States. Instead, more radical groups emerged, and the worst being the ISIS, even not as a direct involvement of USA due to the Arab Revolts that begun in Tunisia. Their vision to build an Islamic caliphate from the ruins of Iraq and Syria has left many more people prone to greater insecurity than ever before. The Americans should have paid their price by ensuring they have developed effective governance systems before they evacuated their soldiers. That would have taken quite a number of years. If I may make an approximation, let me say 25 years on the minimum.

The reason why the withdrawal of KDF and AMISOM will be disastrous is based on the pronunciations earlier made by Osama bin Laden about apostatizing Islam in the way he alluded of Sheikh Ahmed Sharif, former president of the TFG of Somali. Look at this threat where every Somali leader who tries to seek cordial relationship with neighbouring countries will be branded a traitor to the Muslim faith by the Al-Shabaab, there will be no room for peaceful negotiations. The ingredient for peace, cooperation will be an extinct commodity. In already stating that any cooperation with non-Islamic nations and cooperation with non-Muslims is a matter of apostatizing Islam, then Kenya with her religious diversity must not seek to withdraw from Somali until Somali is stabilized.

But history has other lessons, when engaging in pacifying ideologies through military warfare; you must do it to completion. Take a look at North Korea and South Korea, failure for either State to reconcile their ideologies with the other has meant that they are doomed to be in conflict for a very long time in the foreseeable future. The ideologies of Al-Shabaab are not reconcilable in any way to the ideologies of Kenya as a nation that seeks to have people enjoy their liberties without any hindrance, insofar as they do not do so in contradiction to the Constitution. Al-Shabaab seeks to propagate the global Jihadist terrorism ideology, which is in contradiction to the Constitution of Kenya and the collective will of the people of Kenya as a nation. It should be noted that even the same terrorist groups that seek to preserve Islam have been questioned by Muslim faithful over the atrocities they commit in the name of religion. ISIS for example, has committed terrible acts of human rights violations to fellow Muslims even killing some of its own members who seek to question their methods of operations.

This are the kind of people Raila wants to dialogue with, pacifying their egos by withdrawing from Somali. These are religious fanatics who lost sense of humanity. They are real bandits whom Raila advocates that we provide them an inch to move closer and terrorize more Kenyans. Raila, on this one you are wrong, the kind of reasoning which shows you are simply being populist in the pursuit of State House in 2017. Let me beg to differ with you on this. If elected as C-in-C, will you be afraid to send soldiers to the battlefield because the a few of them will die and save the nation or will you keep them safe within the barracks while the country is overrun by foreign terrorists?

Stop wasting time thinking you will engage with Al-Shabaab and reach an agreement they stop harassing, maiming and killing innocent Kenyans. Do not even purport that by withdrawing from Somali they will reciprocate by leaving Kenyans alone. By the way, Garrissa University massacre will be a pale shadow if we withdraw KDF from Somali in future.

[1] Michael Walls, “State Formation in Somaliland: Building Peace from Civil War” (2008 International Peace Research Conference, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2008), 10.

[2] Ken Menkhaus, Somalia: State Collapse and the Threat of Terrorism (London & New York: Routledge, 2004).

[3] A.M Abdullahi, “Perspectives on the State Collapse in Somalia,” in Abdullahi A. Osman & Issaka K. Souaré (eds) Somalia at the Crossroads: Challenges and Perspectives on Reconstituting a Failed State (London: Adonis and Abbey Publishers, Ltd, 2007).

[4] Peter Dörrie, “Al-Shabab: A Close Look at East Africa’s Deadliest Radicals,” August 19, 2014,

[5] B Schiemsky, Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1676 (New York: U.N. Security Council Committee, 2008).

[6] “Somalia: Al-Shabaab Official Equates AU Peacekeepers with Ethiopian Troops” (, January 17, 2009).

Upombe wa Chuka

Awareness Alcoholic Drinks Control Act

According to the research findings on average 94% of the respondents are aware of the existence of the Alcoholic Drinks Control Act. 98% of the respondents who are aware of the act refer to it as the Mututho Laws. Teachers in rural areas of Chuka exhibited the highest rates of awareness at 96%, Peasant farmers 92%, Traders 95%, and casual laborers at 93%, others 94%. These findings indicate that many of the rural people in Chuka have an idea about the existence of the act and are aware that it is in force. The awareness rate of the Act is very high to the extent that the residents of Chuka actually refer to the act as Mututho laws. Implication of this finding is that the residents may not be accurate in their knowledge of the legislation but the fact that it is in existence and they are privy to that goes a long way in making the foundation of the law be operational to achieve its intentions in control and management of alcoholic consumption.

Respondents Grasp of the Content of the Act

All the 94% respondents who demonstrated that they have knowledge of the existence of the act did not show any concrete indication of having fully grasped the content of the Act. They were aware that the law was aimed at controlling alcohol use in the society but they are not privy to the contents of the Act. For peasant farmers, 55% indicated they had an idea about the content, but only 14% of peasant farmers interviewed showed adequate knowledge about the content of the act.  Traders and merchants were 64% who had a general overview of the content but only 48% were sufficiently privy to the content of the Act. Casual laborers had the highest ignorance rates, with only 30% showing they had a rough idea about the actual content of the law, but those with accurate information about the Act’s content was only at 9%. 75% of the teachers showed that they had an idea of the content of the law. Only 25% demonstrated they had adequate knowledge of the Act and its content.

This shows that more needs to be done in making people in Chuka have a clear understanding of the law by being informed of its content. For the law to be effective, its operationalization requires that awareness of the Act be furthered by ensuring people actually know the basis of the law, its requirements and intentions. To be aware of the law alone is not enough in meeting its objectives. Despite the mantra ignorance is not a defense in law, without a clear understanding of the basic principles embodied in the act will render its full implementation problematic and adherence to it may not be fully realized with the current state of high ignorance of the actual content of the legislation.

Strategies to Curb Drinking as Proposed by the Law

The research study evaluated the responses and determined that all the respondents who were aware of the existence of the act knew that the law intended to curtail excessive drinking. In terms of knowing the objectives of the Act, many respondents could not spell out the strategies that the Act proposes to curb the use of alcohol in the country.

In listing the strategies aimed at control of alcohol consumption, the respondents who knew the contents of the law gave priority to the element of barring minors from accessing alcoholic drinks. They cited the time when alcohol should be sold during the day, the ban on children from being present in Alcohol selling points and from being employed or used in the dispensing of alcohol to consumers. Schools location and alcohol dispensing points was noted as important. It is important to note responses on the other strategies such as display of information on alcoholic drink packages, packaging of alcoholic drinks, license issues were barely touched on by the respondents. One aspect where the respondents showed ignorance of the law was that only 15.5% of all the respondents mentioned the issue of debts being prohibited in the purchase of alcohol. In the research, the element of debts contributes to the nature of gender relations within the family. In this aspect, the Act has failed to achieve its objective

Healthworkers’ Resilience

Many of the developing nations worldwide have similar problems that are a challenge to the success of the efficiency of their healthcare systems (Elkhammas & Singh, 2010, p. 149). With particular concern is Africa has 25% of the global disease burden with only 2% of the total healthcare workers globally work in Africa which has less than 1% of global health funding (World Health Organization (WHO, 2014). That already is a manifestation of struggling healthcare systems in which health workers have work in developing nations

In the USA it has been established that when health personnel are over-worked it results in sub-optimal care being given to patients by healthcare workers (Janicijevik, Seke, & Filipovic, 2013). This problem is made worse by the frequent brain drain that favours the developed countries, making developing countries fail to retain healthcare workers they need resulting in low doctor-patient ratios (Elkhammas & Singh, 2010; Musau, Al-Sadat, & Gerei, 2010). The low doctor-patient ratio in many African countries is worsened by unequal distribution of doctors, more sparsely in the countryside (Elkhammas & Singh, 2010, p. 149). This simply exacerbates the pressure health care facilities and healthcare workers are having in terms of facilities, resources and personnel in Africa .

Migration of health workers from Africa is costing African countries huge losses (Mills et al., 2011). The reasons healthcare workers migrate from poor developing countries is based on many factors. In the USA it was noted that under-staffing healthcare facilities had a high correlation with inpatient mortality. This supports the view that under-staffing healthcare facilities increases their work load of healthcare givers and the low doctor-patient ratios in Africa are extremely unfavourable for efficient delivery of services. Kenya has 49 nurses, 7 doctors and 8 clinical officers per every 100,000 peopl . This simply means that understaffing hospitals with doctors is a predictor to poor health outcomes in the treatment of patients and leads to high patient turnover (Needleman et al., 2011). From this statistics it implies Kenya has an approximate population of 25,600 healthcare workforce for a population over 42 million people currently. This translates to approximately one healthcare worker (regardless of whether it is a doctor, clinical officer of nurse) for every 1,641 people. This implication means the healthcare workers have a very high workload rate that may impact negatively on their output

This indicates the doctors and nurses who remain in a very large extent work in very challenging environments. Many of them quit government employment for better paying opportunities in the private sector or seek employment abroad. This shows that some of the health workers are stretched beyond their endurance limit to the extent they lose resilience (Rajan-Rankin, 2013) . This loss of resilience is a coping strategy, and an indicator of doctors and nurses feeling frustrated by the work environment they operate. Medical work may lead to psychological, physical and mental stress on a healthcare worker, and this will have a great influence on their productivity in terms of output of quality service (Govender, Mutunzi, & Okonta, 2012)

Healthcare workers need to have good customer relations and very empathetic to effectively deal with patients. More often than not they also operate in a continuous atmosphere of inadequate resources in many African countries. Thus, despite the shortcomings in resource availability, research shows that an empathetic and caring health worker generate more customer satisfaction in the patient (Pollak et al., 2011). Many patients in Kenya have reservations of the customer care attributes healthcare workers especially nurses (Katira, 2014). A patient who rates his /her experience highly with a doctor is likely to make a repeat visit to a health facility they have used before. Patient satisfaction can be an indicator of an effective healthcare workforce despite lacking enough facilities and resources.

The attitude of some healthcare workers has made them be pivotal in attracting patients to the health facilities in which they are situated. The idea of medical professional being a calling can be used to determine how healthcare workers perceive their roles in the community. It should be noted that when one looks at illness, it is a manifestation of two distinct worlds of realities between the doctor and the patient. In this relationship, how the health workers communicate with patients is a marker of the nature of communication they undertake with each other. Therefore the effectiveness of the communication strategies employed by the patient and the healthcare giver shapes their doctor/nurse patient relationship (Jacobson, 2007).

The design and medical resources available in healthcare facilities have been known to motivate workers to greater productivity. Over time scholars have realized that the way the physical environment has been constructed  as work station, it will ultimately end up influencing employee performance (Carr, 2014). In this construction of the physical environment of a healthcare facility, health care workers may be appealed to develop better therapeutic nurse-patient relationship and hence create a good rapport with the each other (Pullen & Mathias, 2010). This is another significant marker that can point at the general attitudes of the healthcare market area and their utilization of the facilities.

However, availability of resources is scarce in many African countries. The World Health Organization notes that Africa accounts for an incredible 25% burden of infectious diseases globally yet it only has less than 2% of the global share of doctors (WHO, 2014). This provides the evidence of the way healthcare workers in Africa have a huge workload.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been noted that Africa has a very high disease burden which is made worse by the high rates of poverty and presence of a “vector-favourable climate” (Denis et al., 2014). Access to treatment is problematic yet it has been observed that the few who manage to access healthcare facilities make return visits. Secondly, while many research studies have focused on efficiency of healthcare workers and the availability of resources, so far no literature surveyed shows of any study being conducted that have demonstrated the significance of health seeking behaviour of patients and how they are influenced to seek healthcare from the same facilities that they deem them inadequately staffed, with non-empathetic and rude medical staff in the perceptions of patients.

Third, with low motivation that healthcare workers get in Kenya, selected literature surveyed clearly shows there is a contradiction that needs to be investigated. While many of the rural healthcare facilities suffer the vagary of insufficient resources, such as medication and poor facilities, it is presumed that the rural poor use the facilities that are understaffed because of poverty. There is need to determine how the doctor-patient relationship in such an environment influences return visits to the same hospitals. This is at variance with consumer buying behaviours theories that posit excellent customer care and positive experience lead to repeat sales (repeat patient visits in the case of utilization of health care facilities)

1.3.1 Hypothesis

Healthcare workers in public health facilities have high workload burden which affects their productivity in terms of service delivery to patients in Kerugoya Subcounty



1.3.2 Objectives of the Study

1.3.3 General Objectives

Evaluating Workload Burden and influence of healthcare workers in selected public health facilities facilities in Kirinyaga County of Central Kenya Region

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

  1. To determine the number of doctors, clinical officers and nurses in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County
  2. To determine the number of patients they handle per month for a one calendar year period in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County
  • To analyze the workload burden of healthcare workers in terms of number of patients handled and the type of service offered in the one year period in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County
  1. Establish the reasons why healthcare workers get satisfied with their jobs in the face of the challenges they encounter
  2. Establish the coping strategies healthcare workers use in overcoming high workload stress and de-motivation

1.5 Research Questions

  1. What is the total population count of healthcare workers in public health facilities in Kirinyaga County?
  2. What is the total number of patients handled by the healthcare workers per month over a one year period in in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County?
  • What leads to healthcare workers being satisfied with their jobs in the face of challenges they encounter in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County?
  1. Why do healthcare workers get satisfied with their jobs in the face of the challenges they encounter in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County
  2. What are the coping strategies the healthcare workers use to overcome high workload stress and de-motivation in public healthcare facilities in Kirinyaga County

1.6 Assumptions of the Study

  1. The low doctor-patient ratio in Kirinyaga County increases workload and stress for healthcare workers.
  2. There is a monthly variation in terms of workload burden and stress level for healthcare workers in Kirinyaga County in any calendar period
  • There is a monthly variation in terms of workload burden and stress level for healthcare workers in Kirinyaga County in the a one calendar year period
  1. Workload burden and stress level is affected by the number of patients handled and type of service given by healthcare workers in Kirinyaga County
  2. Healthcare workers derive some degree of job satisfaction despite their high workload burdens in Kirinyaga County

            Justification of the Study

The study seeks to establish the underlying reasons why healthcare workers work in poor work environments and poor remuneration and still remain in their work stations and carrying at their duties. The research will provide information that will shape the policy decisions that govern the relationship between healthcare workers and patients.

By doing so, patients are likely to benefit because what compels the healthcare workers to serve them will be understood against the background of their grievances. This will lead to identifying the factors that make healthcare workers work when in extreme variance with their employer lastly, the information gathered will help the County Government of Kirinyaga and the National government to design better policies that actually promote the factors that motivate healthcare workers for the benefit of the general public



2.1 Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework that will guide this research is based on Herzberg’s Two Factor which posits that there are many factors in the workplace environment that create job job dissatisfaction in employees. While a lot has been done to study how factors of job dissatisfaction affect employees, available literature indicates nothing has been done to demonstrate the way healthcare workers in developing countries overcome dissatisfiers in their work environment in a situation where the factors that dissatisfy them are ever present yet they do not leave their jobs. This research will make a unique attempt in evaluating the job dissatisfies on non-exit of health workers who are not having hygiene factors of motivation realized in the jobs         

There is need to understand the push and pull factors which make health workers remain in a public health facility or move to the private sector or even seek greener pastures abroad especially in the developed world. It is estimated that more than 30% of healthcare personnel who were born and trained in sub-Saharan Africa emigrated to the developed countries (Poppe et al., 2014). While global statistics point out to what is happening concerning doctors migrating from sub-Saharan Africa, a survey of selected literature focus on why doctors leave but not what makes them remain behind despite the poor working conditions and de-motivation they encounter.

Kenya has an abject shortage of doctors with only 2,300 doctors serving public health facilities which are a far cry of the WHO recommended standards of 1 doctor for every 1,000 people . The pressure on the doctors who remain in public services is therefore big and employee burnouts are associated with this. It is a matter of conjecture on how healthcare workers manage to discharge their duties and achieve relative high success rates in treating patients regardless of how they handle them. In the doctor-patient relationship, the doctor is usually seen as the one who can help the sick regain good health as the knowledgeable other in the relationship. This exposes a gap in knowledge that needs to be filled

2.2 Workload as a predictor of Job Satisfaction

Based on Herzeberg’s Two Factor theory of motivation, it should be noted  that many Kenyan health care professional have quit from the public sector employment. Using Herzeberg’s Two Factor Theory, one needs to discover the motivationa factors that make healthcare workers remain in the public healthcare facilities Kinfu et al., 2009). Healthcare workers are an important component of the healthcare system . The achievements of workers through motivation needs to be evaluated again to determine to what level are the de-satisfiers that make employees shun the jobs, or exit the profession influence their decisions. Contary to what many researchers do, using Herzeberg’s Two Factor Theory to establish conditions that either motivate employees or make them dissatisfied, this study seeks to use the theory in determining what makes them remain in their jobs and work stations despite being de-motivated. This is a gap in knowledge that begs attention.

2.3 Patient Use of Public Healthcare Facilities

Healthcare facilities are used by patients based on their consumer buying behaviour. The theory of consumer buying behaviour looks at the factors and steps individuals under before they came to a decision to buy a product. The consumer buying behaviour will allow the research to determine when, where, how and what the buyer wants. In the context of this study, consumer buying behaviour should be construed as the way patients and other relevant others in a pateint’s come to the decision to use the hospital facilities in solving their health problems.

The use of healthcare facilities is functionally an outcome of the decision to seek healthcare and being affordable for the patient. The patients who have a bad consumer buying behaviour experience of healthcare facilities in the way they have utilized the facilities will not go back to the centres. However, despite the usual explanation based on poverty and inability to access better healthcare facilities in rural areas, this research looks at what promotes health seeking behaviours of patients to make repeat visits to facilities they consider unhelpful. There is a missing link between customer dissatisfaction and repeat purchase which is exhibited by many rural folks in Kirinyaga County

2.4 Coping Strategies and Motivation of Health Care Workers

            In looking at the situation of healthcare workers in Kenya, the issues that de-motivate them are inherently intertwined with their work environment. Secondly, a social expectation that healthcare workers should live upto a certain standard of life compels them to seek extra employment in other private facilities. The issue that needs to be understood the coping strategies are a predictor that the pay and work conditions are not good. This psychologically affects the way doctors, nurses and clinical officers relate with patients. Based on expectancy, what the healthcare workers wants is at variance with what the patient needs. When the healthcare workers resort to industrial action which contravenes their Hippocratic oath, patients in their health-seeking behaviours have been reported to go even to the healthcare workers homes to seek help. What motivates the healthcare workers to assist the patients extant to the hospital environment still remains unknown. Research studies so far do not provide clue of healthcare workers being highly underpaid, in resource-deficit working environments remaining their and serving patients fully or partially



3.1 Description of Study Site

The study will be conducted in Kirinyaga County in the Central Region of Kenya. The county has a population of xyz people as per the 2009 National census. Kerugoya has xyz healthcare facilities serving a population of xyz number of people, with X, Y and Z numbers of doctors, clinical officers and nurses respectively

3.2 Research Design

The study will use descriptive cross-sectional survey design in collecting quantitative and qualitative data from the sample population

3.3 Targeted Study Population

The target population will be the doctors, nurses, clinicians in addition to the patients who make a repeat visit to the selected facilities within a one year period.

3.4 Sample Determination, Selection and Sampling Design

The sample size will be determined by using the sample size determination table proposed by Glenn Israel which was developed from Cochran’s formula for determine the appropriate sample size in regard to different confidence levels required in a study (Israel, 2013, p. 3)

Sample selection will be done in two ways. For healthcare workers stratified proportionate sampling will be used. Using Israel’s table, the total number of healthcare workers will be determined and each group allotted proportionately in the sample population

The population of patients will be selected on a simple systematic random selection. The total population of the number of patients handled the previous year will be assumed to be equal to the current year and that will guide the sample size determination as given by Glenn Israel (2013).

            3.5 Data Collection Instruments

The data collection instruments will be the questionnaire and the use of the interview schedule. The high literacy levels of healthcare workers will allow them to fill the questionnaires of their own.

For the patients, some are expected to be illiterate and use of the interview schedules will be appropriate. In some cases, use of focused group discussions will be used to collect data

3.6 Data Collection Procedures

The researcher and the research assistants will introduce themselves to the respondents and explain the aim of the research. Those who agree to be respondents based on informed consent will either be included in a Focussed Group Discussion (FGD) or have the interview schedule administered to them.

3.7 Data Analysis

Data will be analysed using statistical procedures of mean, averages, percentile, quartile and simple aggregation. The use of inferential statistical procedures of Pearson’s r-Correlation Coefficient will be used to infer the level of linear correlation between the coping strategies employed at different workload burden and stress level to determine if there is any relationship and the significance of that relationship. Contextual analysis will be used to analyse the qualitative data collected.

The findings will be summarized in a report and presented with charts and tables in a discussion of the findings of the research

3.8 Ethical Considerations

            During the data collection process, the research team will ensure the rights and freedom of the respondents is highly respected by safeguarding their privacy and confidentiality during the data collection process and thereafter in the data analysis and compilation of the report. At no point in time during the research process will this be violated and the respondents will be assured of this in seeking their informed consent to be participants in the study

Informed consent will be obtained from respondents without misrepresentation of facts or use of fraud. Participants will be required to s form indicating the were enlisted only after agreeing to be respondents. Children will not be interviewed due to ethical concerns, instead their parents will be interviewed


Carr, F. . (2014). Health Care Facilities. BDG. Retrieved from

Elkhammas, E. ., & Singh, N. (2010). Towards Reforming Health Care Services In Developing Countries: Taking Libya As an Example. Ibnosina Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2(4), 149–151.

Govender, I., Mutunzi, E., & Okonta, H. . (2012). Stress among medical doctors working in public hospitals of the Ngaka Modiri Molema district (Mafikeng health region), North West province, South Africa. The South African Journal of Psychiatry, 18(2), 42–46.

Jacobson, P. (2007). Empowering the physician-patient relationshEmpowering the physician-patient relationship: The effect of the Internetip: The effect of the Internet. Canadia Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 2(1). Retrieved from

Janicijevik, I., Seke, K., & Filipovic, T. (2013). Healthcare workers satisfaction and patient satisfaction – where is the linkage? Hippokratia Quarterly Medical Journal, 17(2), 157–162.

Katira, N. (2013, March 20). Seeking Aid in Hospitals and being assisted when healthcare workers strike.

Kinfu, Y., Dal, P. M. ., & Evans, D. . (2009). health worker shortage in Africa: are enough physicians and nurses being trained? Bulletin of World Helth Organization, 87(3), 225–300.

Michtalik, H. J. (2013). Excessive Workload Among Doctors Undermines Patient Safety. MTN. Retrieved from

Mills, E. ., Kanters, S., Hagopin, A., Bansback, N., Nachega, J., Alberton, M., … Ford, N. (2011). The financial costs of doctors emigrating from sub-Saharan Africa: Human Capital Analysis. BMJ, 2011(343:d7031).

Musau, Y. A., Al-Sadat, N., & Gerei, A. . (2010). Brain-Drain and health care delivery in developing countries. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 1(1). Retrieved from

Mwena, S. . (2012). From a dream to a resounding reality: the inception of doctor’s union in kenya. Pan African Medical Journal.

Needleman, J., Buerhaus, P., Pankratz, S. ., Leibson, C. ., Stevens, S. ., & Harris, M. (2011). Nurse Staffing and Inpatient Hospital Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 364, 1037–1045.

Pollak, K., Alexander, S. ., Tulsky, J. ., Lyna, P., Coffman, C. ., Dolor, R. ., … Ostbye, T. (2011). Physician empathy and listening: Associations with patient satisfaction and autonomy. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine.

Poppe, A., Jirovsky, E., Blacklock, C., Laxmikanth, P., Moosa, S., de Maeseneer, J., … Peersman, W. (2014). Why sub-Saharan African health workers migrate to European countries that do not actively recruit: a qualitative study post-migration. Global Health Action, 7.

Pullen, R., & Mathias, T. (2010). Fostering therapeutic nurse-patient relationships. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy, 8(3), 4.

Rajan-Rankin, S. (2013). Self-Identity, Embodiment and the Development of Emotional Resilience. The British Journal of Social Work, 45(2).

Shi, L. (2012). The Impact of Primary Care: A Focused Review. Scientifica, 2012(Article ID 432892). Retrieved from


Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation”

 By Julio Warner Loiseau,




Terrorism and Corruption are intimate romantic lovers in Kenya

In the last few months, I have seen my country succumb yet again to the atrocities of the fanatic murderers ‘abrogating’ the divine role of God, taking away lives which they are utterly 3,000% incompetent to produce. Time has made me check myself. I’m I getting inherently mad at the government of the day for no good reason when the culprit lies elsewhere? Are these terror attacks meted on innocent people when the perpetrator is inadvertently blind? I have been silent for so long, reflecting, and in my mental monologues I have decided to share this with you.

I start by making a simple argument. When the government tried to muzzle the media not to report on security matters, I guess that would have been the ultimate death for the general tranquillity in the country, which for long has been a God given heritage to our nation. Then the terrorists started hitting Kenya hard, pelted the civil population with tirades of invective words and the deadly venom of a gun, bullets, laced with more poisons; grenades, RPGs, landmines and many more

It began with Westgate, and up to date I challenge the President of Kenya to retract his statement that the horrors of Westgate will never happen again. I looked at that statement and cheered as a gallant show of taking command of security in the country. It was on the count of the five fingers on my hand a few days later while bragging about the will of the president to fight terrorism did a reality check knocked me out. Not senseless, but speechless. I remember in that single moment of time when a question thrown at me opened so many things in a flash of a nanosecond. A military friend of mine asked me “Why do you think the Al-Shabaab are attacking civilians and not the military?”

I think I gave a silly answer, the military guy looked at me and said “When two countries declare war, you know whom you are fighting, when a faceless amorphous state that operates on the principles of Jihadism use it to wrongly justify terrorist acts and they are not a tangible state, squarely formless or determinately void less, but with capacity to undertake militant manoeuvres, it is going to a long war. The soldiers by themselves are protected, for they are the hands that hold the sword fighting, civilians are the under-belly of a nation.”

“What do you mean?” I asked

The soldier looked at me and said “If you undertake a short history of radical Muslim groups such as Al-Shabaab, the war is not Holy war per se, but a fight to control resources. Unless you find a way to stabilize Somali permanently, the Lords who make merry will continue to churn out even more radicalized terrorists.”

By then I had no idea about the massive charcoal industry in Somali that was being used to fund terrorist operations. I had made little connection between piracy and terrorism, but that day I realized while corruption fights back, terrorism always erupts back when it appears to be highly in check. It was the day the military man gave the short history of the Taliban, and he made sense to me. If I don’t make sense to you, my apologies to you, expand your horizon. After Westgate, the Nation wept. It was then that instead of closing my mind to the world I opened my intellectual window and let the sea breeze of thinking spur on my reflections. In my silent monologues, I felt the urge to write but mixed emotions of vindicating the soldier or lauding the president always kept me at a loss.

Distant events in Kenya changed my perspective, in my silent monologues; I ruled the soldier correct and the President wrong. The soldier had told me the story of Winston Churchill and the speech he gave British parliament of toil, blood and tears. The hard reality to spur the resilience of a nation to endure the ill-fortunes of war with the prize of peace hard fought for and won at the end of the war. In Africa the Boko Haram were wrecking Northern Nigeria to pieces. Yet President Goodluck Jonathan always assured the Nigerian people. Same like Uhuru, and more menace of terror was spewed forth to innocent civilian populations. Mass murders, rape, maiming and killing of innocent people continued unabated. But there is difference here, Uhuru Kenyatta and Goodluck Jonathan are fighting a Stateless enemy, Winston Churchill engaged a well structured State, German.

In East Africa, the Al-Shabaab has taken the cue. They have shown they have systemic hatred for the Christian population. The aim is to fragment the country on religious lines and sow the seeds of discord, so that once defeated, they can have another footing to erupt back. The Al-Shabaab is hot magma, whose volcanicity will not end in a span of months. They will transfer the volatiles of terrorism from their sleeper cells and continuously attack innocent Kenyans. That is why, read my earlier blogs, Uhuru Kenyatta and William Ruto were fervent fools to go on KBC and promise that Westgate will never happen in Kenya. I hope the apostles of political wisdom have given them a thorough ‘reading’ about making reckless comments and promises in terrorist situations. I feel the shame of when Al-Shabaab release a video showing how they organized and undertook their infamous massacre. Terrorism was entwined with local land issues unfettered. Mpeketoni.

Again it happened. Mpeketoni. That again sends chills down the spines of many, especially the women who were forced to witness the execution of their husbands, brothers, sons, and nephews, some were shot for the crime of being boys, age notwithstanding, and toddlers were shot. The blood spills came in torrents, people had forgotten about Westgate and Al-Shabaab were keen to use that memory lapse to their full advantage. This time, the President was an embarrassment to me from the onset. In this crisis he saw political mileage and rubbished terrorism. It was a way of covering up for his failure to deliver the promise, never again will this happen, so why did happen again? The blame was directed to the opposition alliance. I have mentioned the video evidence linking Al-Shabaab to the massacre, do not shame me again like that Mr. President

Next was the Mandera bus attack. The merchants of terror need not haggle with anybody about the essence of human life. 28 teachers and other people were discriminated on the basis of religion and shot. Only one survived by the fate of the brain tissue of his wife, if God purposes you live, say your prayers and give Him thanks always. I shudder to think of my trauma after such an escape. Will I ever learn to trust the very own life I live? Thirty-six quarry workers were massacred a few days later. In between this major attacks small ‘inuendo’attacks were sustained at churches, hotels, businesses, private homes ceaselessly.

The final straw in the hat was Garissa attack. I call final because it is the most recent and not because no other will ever occur. That is when I realized the Al-Shabaab is not our enemy; the real enemy is within our own failure. I do not want to revisit Garissa attack, like many Kenyans let me hope to forget this and move on in life. Everybody does so in Kenya, even the security machinery. While we fight graft with kuku thieves, we forget grand-corruption is the cause of our systemic failure in the operations of our security organs. KTN has been able to show a documentary that clearly connects graft at all levels of government and the general society to the unfathomable loss of innocent lives in the Garissa attack. Mr. President, while you have not given me any reason to celebrate, I hope you have the audacity to come forward and apologize to Kenyans and tell them to walk knowing it will happen again, with gruesome consequences. Terrorist are not resting, planning and planning more terror attacks. When and where we don’t know, even if we know, who cares about using intelligence reports that have no daughter who will be shot after a terrorist verbally abuses her parents on a phone call conversation? The poor remain unprotected because those with the mandate are too corrupt to make use of intelligence and curb a crime.

As you do fight corruption Mr. President, do the realistic. Get competent people to do jobs competently without recourse on how will it benefit your aspirations for 2017 as a rider for appointment, if that is the case, do change. I know for a fact, Kenyans are happy that you are finally seen to be folding your shirt sleeves spoiling yourself for a fight with grand corruption. Get me right. Do the tough things with the toughness and seriousness they deserve and thereafter don’t talk much. Be like your late dad, he talked tough with the Shifta and acted tough with them. You better act tough in your own way because the constitution was changed.

…before I forget, don’t lie to me Garissa attack will never happen again.  I have a premonition that it may happen, more lives will be lost, but start building resilience in the Kenyan minds to endure, every page in the history of mankind that was filled with atrocities always came to an end, because when you flip to the next page, positive changes always follow the hardest moments in an era. Our sense of security and alertness is becoming sharper in the experience of a nation.

Effects of Warning Messages


Apart from teachers expressing their effectiveness of the third message (c.) in the second schedule of the Alcohol Control Act of 2010, it was evident that the residents of Chuka do not see the requirements as effective. The last rule that alcohol should not be sold to minors was rated on average as 28% effective which means that the potential that minors can buy the alcohol is very high. It is only teachers who stated that the third warning set out in the Act’s schedule was effective. Casual laborers and traders gave effective ratings of 40%, 20% and 33% for the warning alcohol role in the impairment of judgment and working using machinery. The possible explanation why teachers gave a low rating of the effectiveness of the law at 19% than the rest is due to the fact that they rarely have to use tools and machinery in the conduct of the work unlike farmers, traders and casual laborers. The contextual analysis indicates that casual laborers are more informed and have experienced to the dangers of alcohol more than the other groups on the inability to operate machines while drunk. This translates to an average of 19% effectiveness for these three groups.